Water from rivers, lakes and seas can be contaminated by various microorganisms (worms, bacteria, protozoa), eggs and larvae of disease-causing animals and may be polluted by toxic substances (cadmium and mercury, for example). This is usually caused by city sewage.
Disease transmission can be achieved by ingesting contaminated or polluted water and also by using such water. If we wash fruits and vegetables with inadequate water, we also risk contamination.
We must take care that certain insects do not reproduce in water, causing disease. Therefore it is important to:
- do not add water to old tires, spans, cans, bottles;
- avoid the formation of puddles in the yards;
- keep pool water clean and chlorine-free;
- put sand in the dishes of the vases;
- seal water boxes
Some diseases are related to the loss of water in the body, such as dehydration. Others are related to water contamination, such as cholera, dysentery, schistosomiasis, malaria, dengue and yellow fever.
It is when our body loses water and minerals in quantities that impairs the vital functions of the human body. Replacement is by serum. Homemade whey can be made at home:
- 1 tablespoon sugar
- 1 pinch of cooking salt
- 1 cup of boiled or filtered water
Originally from Asia, more precisely from India and Bangladesh, cholera spread to other continents from 1817. It arrived in Brazil in 1885, invading the states of Amazonas, Bahia, Pará and Rio de Janeiro.
In 1893 the disease reached São Paulo, spreading both in the capital and in the interior of the state. However, in the late nineteenth century, the Brazilian government declared the disease eradicated from across the country. About a century later, in April 1991, cholera arrived in Brazil again. Coming from Peru, he made his first victim in the city of Tabatinga, Amazonas.
Cholera is an infectious disease that attacks the intestines of humans. The bacterium that causes it was discovered by Robert Koch in 1884 and later named after Vibrio cholerae. By infecting the human intestines, this bacteria causes the body to flush out a large amount of water and mineral salts, causing serious dehydration.
Cholera bacteria can be incubated for one to four days. When the disease manifests, it has the following symptoms: nausea and vomiting; abdominal cramps; abundant diarrhea, whitish like rice water, leading to the loss of up to one liter of water per hour; cramps.
Cholera is mainly transmitted by contaminated water and food. It is known as the "dirty hands" disease. When the vibrium is ingested, it settles in the intestines of man. This bacterium releases a toxic substance that alters the normal functioning of intestinal cells. Then diarrhea and vomiting arise. Cholera can be fatal if the diagnosis is not rapid and the patient is not treated correctly. Treatment should be done with medical supervision, using antibiotics to fight infection and drugs to fight diarrhea and prevent dehydration.
Cholera can be prevented through vaccine and mainly through hygiene and sanitation measures. Vaccination is the responsibility of the government. In the case of cholera, there is no guarantee that all vaccinated people will be immune to the disease. The existing vaccine is estimated to be less than 50% effective. Care needed to prevent cholera:
- ingest only chlorinated, boiled and filtered water;
- protect foods, including those that have already been cooked;
- avoid eating prepared foods in places of doubtful hygiene;
- always boil the milk;
- avoid eating raw fruits and vegetables in places where cholera may exist;
- fish and seafood should be well cooked
The choleric vibrator resists more at low temperature. Note the following table:
Life time (in days)
Fresh water at 10ºC
from 10 to 19
Fresh water at 25ºC
Fresh water at 35ºC
Seawater at 10ºC
up to 26 days
Sea water at 25ºC
Sea water at 35ºC
Sewage at 10ºC
Sewage at 25ºC
Sewer at 35ºC