Physics

Timeline Physics (continued)


  • 1849 - Armand Fizeau measures the speed of light.
  • 1850 - Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius creates the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
  • 1859 - Gustav Robert Kirchhoff discovers the spectral lines, different for each chemical element.
  • 1865 - James Clerk Maxwell unifies the laws of electric and magnetic forces. He also discovers that light is just electromagnetic energy in motion. That is, Maxwell unifies three sciences: electricity, magnetism and optics.
  • 1884 - Statistical mechanics, developed by the German Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann, deepens Maxwell's Kinetic Gas Theory.
  • 1887 - Heirich Rudolf Hertz discovers the photoelectric effect.
  • 1895 - Wilheim Konrad Röntgen reveals the existence of x-rays.
  • 1896 - Henri Becquerel discovers the radioactivity.
  • 1896 - Rutherford discovers the alpha and beta rays produced in radiative atoms.
  • 1900 - Max Planck proposes the existence of tiny "bundles" of light and calls these bundles quanta.
  • 1905 - Albert Einstein states that the how much They are a new kind of particles: the atoms of light.
  • 1905 - Albert Einstein develops the theory of relativity.
  • 1907 - Hermann Minkowski develops a more elegant and practical mathematical formulation for the Theory of Relativity, adding a fourth dimension to space, the dimension of time.
  • 1908 - Jean-Baptiste Perrin first observes the size of atoms.
  • 1911 - Ernest Rutherford notes that the atom has a very hard central nucleus in which almost all its mass is concentrated.
  • 1913 - Niels Bohr gives the first description of an atom. In the center would be the nucleus, about 100,000 times smaller than the entire atom. Around them would rotate electrons the same way planets orbit the sun.
  • 1916 - Albert Einstein proposes the General Theory of Relativity that broadens his Theory of Relativity, which then becomes known as the Theory of Restricted Relativity, to encompass the effects of the force of gravity.
  • 1923 - Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond de Broglie demonstrates that particles can act as waves. He discovers that the electron appears as a particle, that is, a concentrate of matter, and also as a wave, as if its mass were scattered throughout space, oscillating.
  • 1926 - Starting from the idea that particles like the electron sometimes act as waves, Erwin Schrödinger reshapes the image of atoms. The electrons now would no longer be particles spinning around the nucleus, but as if each electron were a wave vibrating around the nucleus.
  • 1927 - Werner Carl Heisenberg defines the Uncertainty Principle on which almost all quantum mechanics is based.
  • 1932 - James Chadwick detects the neutron, the second component particle of the nucleus of atoms.
  • 1932 - Carl David Anderson observes the positron, which is the electron antimatter, that is, an electron-like particle in all aspects except the electric charge, which is positively positive in the positron and negative in the electron.
  • 1934 - Enrico Fermi discovers the force that would later be called weak nuclear.
  • 1935 - Hideki Yukawa discovers the strong nuclear force.
  • 1939 - For the first time an atomic nucleus is fissionated, that of uranium.
  • 1947 - Two other types of subatomic particles are detected, mesons and hypedrons.
  • 1956 - One more subatomic particle is detected, the neutrino, by the Los Angeles Laboratory.
  • 1967 - John Wheeler proposes the term "black hole".
  • 1972 - Murray Gell-mann proposes the theory that atomic nucleus components are composed of even smaller particles, the quarks.
  • 1986 - Bednorz and K.A. Müller produce a "high" temperature superconductor, that is, a material which under low but achievable temperatures has zero electrical resistivity.
  • 1987 - Johannes Georg Bednorz and Karl Alex Müller discover so-called superconducting ceramics, capable of conducting electricity without loss of energy.