Physics

The Great Hadron Collider - LHC


Located at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) on the border between France and Switzerland, the LHC Large Hadron Collider) is the largest particle accelerator ever built with a circumference of 27 kilometers in diameter, 175 meters below ground level.

Along the tunnel where the particles collide, there are several detectors that record data for various study purposes. The main experiences are:

  • ALICE - THE Large Ion Çollider ANDxperiment (Great Ion Collider Experiment):

This detector seeks to unravel the hot, dense matter created from the collision of heavy ions at high energies. More than 100 physicists are working on this experiment from 111 laboratories and universities from 31 different countries.

  • ATLAS - THE Toroidal LHC THEpparatus (Toroidal Instrumental Device for LHC):

It seeks to detect the Higgs boson and supersymmetric particles, and to analyze the physical properties at high energy. The construction of this detector is the result of the collaboration of 172 institutes from 37 countries and has more than 2500 scientists.

  • CMS - Çompact Muon solenoid (Compact Muon Solenoid):

It has basically the same goals as the ATLAS detector, but is more compact. More than 2600 people from 180 scientific institutes participated in its construction.

  • LHCb - Large Hadron Çollider “Bbeauty ” (beauty refers to quark bottom):

Designed to measure rare decay of mesons with quark bottom or anti-bottom quark, It also seeks to make measurements of symmetry violation between particles and antiparticles (such as the electron and positron). The experiment has 650 scientists from 48 institutes in 13 countries.

  • LHCf - Large Hadron Çollider “forward ”:

The word forward (forward) is used in the name as the detector works in the region after collisions. Seeks to experiment with cosmic rays created from high energy collisions. In this experiment work 22 scientists representing 10 institutes from 4 countries.

  • TOTEM - Total ANDlastic and diffractive cross section Measurement:

It seeks to measure proton size and the brightness of collisions in the LHC. It has 50 scientists from 10 institutes in 8 countries.

O Higgs' Boson It is a hypothetical elementary particle which, if observed, will explain the origin of the mass of the other elementary particles.

The LHC went live on September 10, 2008, but was shut down nine days later, after a helium leak used for tunnel cooling. After 14 months the accelerator was restarted on November 20, 2009, and the first collision, which occurred on March 30, 2010, generated a power of 7 TeV (7 teraelectron volts).

Probably the first results of this experiment will take months to process, but it can be said that scientists are getting closer and closer to unraveling the mysteries of the origin of the universe.