Niels Henrik David Bohr was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, on October 7, 1885. He was an important physicist who studied atomic structure and quantum physics.
His father (Cristian Bohr) was a teacher and his mother was from a Jewish family. As a student, he participated in a promotion at the Copenhagen Academy of Sciences. Anyone who could solve a particular scientific problem won a prize. Bohr did a theoretical and experimental investigation into the surface tension caused by the oscillation of fluid jets in his father's laboratory. He won the prize, which was a gold medal and his work was published in 1908 in Transaction of the Royal Society.
In 1911, he graduated and worked with scientists Joseph John Thonsom and Ernet Rutherford in England. He performed work on alpha-ray absorption published in Philophical Magazine in 1913. From this moment on, he began to devote himself to atomic structure based on Rutherford's atomic nucleus work. That same year, he married Margreth Norlund and later had six children.
Studying the hydrogen atom, he was able to formulate a new atomic model. His theory was accepted and at 28, Bohr was already a well-known physicist with a brilliant career. From 1914 to 1916 he was professor of theoretical physics at the University of Victoria in Manchester. In Copenhagen he was appointed director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics in the year 1920.
In 1922, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics. Wrote the book The Theory of Spectra and Atomic Constitution. He also studied the principle of correspondence, structure of complex atoms, X-rays, progressive variations of the chemical properties of the elements and atomic nucleus. It also studied phenomena such as uranium fission. He met in Philadelphia with Albert Einstein and Fermi to discuss the issue.
In 1933, with his student Wheeler, Bohr deepened the theory of nuclear fission. They predicted the existence of a new chemical element, which would later be plutonium.
At the Fifth Conference of Theoretical Physics in 1937, he defended the work of L. Meitner and Otto R. Frish in Washington, USA. Also about the fission of uranium. His works on "drop eoria" were published in a magazine.
In 1934, he took refuge in the United States because the Nazis had occupied Denmark. In America, he was a consultant at the Los Alamos Atomic Energy Laboratory. In this lab, some scientists began to build an atomic bomb.
Bohr, aware of the gravity of building an atomic bomb, addressed heads of state such as Churchill and Roosevelt. However, in 1945, the first bomb exploded in Alamogordo. In August of the same year, the atomic bomb exploded in Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and three days later in Nagasaki during World War II.
In 1945, after the end of the war, he returned to Denmark and was elected president of the Academy of Sciences. In 1950, he writes the "Open Letter" to the United Nations and in 1957 receives the Atoms for Peace Prize. He also directs the Institute of Theoretical Physics, which was later called the Niels Bohr Institute.
In his honor, the chemical element 107 is called bohrio (Bh). Bohr died a victim of thrombosis at age 77 on November 18, 1962.