Ionic solids are united because of the strong attraction between their cation ions and their anion ions.
Most metals are solid at room temperature because of the metal bond.
Substances which have covalent bonds may be solid, liquid or gaseous at room temperature. This shows that the interactions between these molecules can be larger or smaller.
There are three types of intermolecular interactions. They are only for substances that have covalent bonds.
- hydrogen bridges or hydrogen bonds;
- dipole dipole, dipole permanent or dipole forces;
- London forces, Van der Waals forces or dipole-induced.
From now on, we will study each of them.