Covalent bonds through hybrid orbitals

Hybridization or hybridization of orbitals is an interpenetration (mixture) that gives rise to new orbitals, in equal number, called hybrid orbitals. See the type of hybridization for different types of carbon bonds:

- sp3

In this molecule, methane, all bonds are sp3. Any molecule that has simple bonds, its hybridization will be sp3.

- sp2

In this molecule, ethene, we have a double bond, so hybridization at this bond will be sp2 (sigma bond) and p (pi bond). The other calls are all sp2.

- sp

H - C ≡ C - H

In this case, the ethino has a triple bond, one being sp (sigma bond) and two p (pi bond) hybridization. The bond between carbons and hydrogens is sp.

All π bonds are pure p.

See this molecule:

= C =

In this molecule, there is an angle of 180 ° between the double bonds. Hybridization will be sp and p for each double bond.

A bond between H - C will be s - sp.

Example: be the following ethane molecule, analyze its σ and π bonds and the hybridization type of each bond:

Carbon 1:
H - C σ: s - sp3
C - C σ: sp3 - sp3

Carbon 2:
C - C σ: sp3 - sp3
H - C σ: s - sp3

In ethane, there is no π bond, so no pure p.

Angle between leads

According to the hybridization, look at the angle that forms at each of them:

sp3 - 109° 28'16”
sp2 - 120°
sp - 180 °